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 Events  Share this article   Share on Google+   Summary of Corkscrew column Not Just Wine 
  Corkscrew Issue 2, November 2002   
Serving a Bottle of WineServing a Bottle of Wine  Contents 
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Serving a Bottle of Wine

Opening and serving a bottle of wine correctly is not just a matter of style. Bottle's opening ceremony, besides being aesthetical, is also a practice that allows to better present and appreciate a wine.

 Opening and serving a bottle of wine can be seen as a marginal aspect, it probably can be seen as a sumptuous ceremony where the one who is opening the bottle, has a reverent composure and formality, almost bordering incomprehensibility; these acts are probably considered useless and ceremonious. Indeed, it is not just a matter of style and formality, this operation, first of all, allows to make sure both bottle and its accessories needed to keep and maintain wine, are in good health and condition as well as making sure the wine is not altered or damaged by any possible defect. Moreover, opening a bottle of wine correctly is a proper operation that allows to serve wine in respect of the product itself as well as guaranteeing its integrity. There are many inconvenient practices, such as the famous and loud “bang”, usually and unfortunately heard during the opening of a bottle of sparkling wine in parties, which can also alter the organoleptic qualities of a wine or, at least, part of it. The one who opens a bottle of wine is therefore responsible to make sure what he or she is going to serve is in good conditions as well as not having any defect or flaw that could compromise the quality of the wine.

 Among the many factors that allow to serve a wine in its best condition, temperature is one of them and plays a determinant role: this aspect will not be covered in this report because it has been already discussed in the previous issue. Every operation illustrated in this report assume the bottle of wine to be served has been properly chilled, or warmed, at its right serving temperature. Opening and serving a bottle of wine is what logically follows the operation of chilling or warming a wine to its serving temperature.

 

Order of service

 Before illustrating the operations to be accomplished in order to correctly open and serve a bottle of wine, it is useful to understand how to arrange and set things properly according to the types of the wines to be served. A very important aspect, sadly to admit, often neglected, is the order in which the wines are to be served. In case the event has just one wine, or in case only one wine is going to be tasted, the conclusion is obviously evident, there will ne no order of service. However, there are particular events, such us a dinner or formal ceremonies, where the possibility of serving more than one wine is lkely to happen, the best thing would be to serve and match every wine with proper foods, in this case some good rules should be followed and applied, most of them are just logical and obvious rules, and they will allow to serve and appreciate every wine at its best.

 In case more wines are going to be served in the course of the same event, here it is a useful list of rules that should applied:

 

  • White wines are always served before red wines. Rose wines are served after white wines and before red wines. White wines are less tannic than reds and they usually have less body and structure. If a white wine is drunk after having tasted a red one, the white will “disappear' and will not be expressed properly
  • Wines having a lower alcohol quantity are served before the ones having a higher quantity of alcohol. Because of the “burning” sensatio of alcohol in mouth, a least alcoholic wine will not be properly perceived in case it is served after a more alcoholic wine
  • Young wines are served before aged wines. A young wine has a more fruity character, lively and “simple”, whereas aged wines have a more complex and developed character
  • Light wines having little body are served before full bodied and well structured wines. Wine's body is mainly determined by the quantity of extracts, that is wine's solid parts, which is deposited in mouth and therefore they make lighter wines “slip”. This can be easily understood by watching the tongue, as well as teeth, after having drunk a very robust and tannic red wine
  • Cooler wines are served before wines having a higher temperature. A chilled beverage, as well as a cold food, when served after a warm or hot beverage or food cause a sensorial thermal shock. This rule has its exception. Wines served as aperitifs and the ones served at the end of a meal are usually consumed far before the main meal or when some time have passed after the end of a meal
  • Aromatic wines are always served after the least aromatic ones. The perception of a delicate aroma will be hardly perceivable when the olfactory bulb has previously sensed strong and intense aromas
  • Dry wines are served before sweet wines. This rule derives from the same one used for foods: sweet foods are always served at the end of a meal and the best match for a sweet food is mostly a sweet wine
  • A wine should never make anyone regret the wine served before it. The success of this rule is ensured by applying and following all the preceding ones. A wine that make anyone regret the previous one, besides disappointing the good expectations for everything served next, also originates prejudices and a scarce predisposition for the wines that follow

 Moreover wines must be served according to season. In summertime white and rose wines are preferred, whereas in cold seasons red and and full bodied wines are preferred instead.

 In case a sparkling wine is about to be served, besides following the above mentioned rules, it is also good to remember:

 

  • Sparkling wines produced with “Charmat” or “Martinotti” methods are always served before sparkling wines produced with “Classic Method” or “Méthode Champenoise”.
  • Vintage sparkling wines are always served after non vintage ones. Vintage sparkling wines usually have superior characteristics compared to the others, have more aromas and a more complex structure, therefore they are served after

 In case still wines and sparkling wines have to be served during the course of the same event, generally speaking, and in respect and according to the rules stated above, dry sparkling wines are usually served at the beginning, whereas sweet sparkling wines are served at the end, after dry and still wines. Passito wines and sweet or dessert wines are always served after any other wine, either still or sparkling. Particular attention should be paid to fortified wines, such as Marsala and Jerez (Sherry). In case dry fortified wines are to be served, such as a Marsala Vergine and a Jerez Fino, they can be served as aperitifs, las not the least, they can also be matched with foods during a meal; in case of sweet fortified wines, such as a Sweet Superior Marsala or a Jerez Pedro Ximénez, they are served at the end and after any other wine.

 

Accessories and tools


Sparkling wine pliers and two types of
corkscrews
Sparkling wine pliers and two types of corkscrews

 Corkscrew is surely the most important and indispensable tool used to open a bottle of wine. Corkscrews come in different forms and shapes, there is a huge variety of them available out there, as well as uncorking machines that can remove a cork from a bottle almost automatically. No matter how much this uncorking machines may appear useful and amazing, our personal preference is however for the most functional and classic form: the so called “waiter's corkscrew” or “waiter's friend”, the one used by professionals for this purpose such as, for example, sommeliers. The right side of figure shows two different types of waiter's corkscrew, both being practical as well as functional.

 This kind of tool is formed by a body or handle, which allows to grip it, and attached to it there are all the other mobile parts of the corkscrew such as the blade, the spiral and the lever. Every single element of the corkscrew plays an important role which allows to accomplish a perfect job. The handle should have an ergonomic shape in order to allow a safe and comfortable grip during the action of pulling. Corkscrew's blade should be made of stainless steel, resistant and sharp, the blade should possibly be toothed, in order to allow a precise and sharp cut of the foil. Straight blades work very well as long as they are sharp, a condition which is progressively lost with usage and time, a blade which is not sufficiently sharp will surely tear the foil and this is not neither pleasing nor aesthetically good to see.

 The most important part of the corkscrew is surely the spiral. Its length should be about 5÷6 cm (a little more than 2 inches), it will be made of chromium-plated stainless steel, even better, covered with Teflon. Spirals covered with Teflon are to be preferred to chromium-plated ones because they ensure a lesser friction when screwed into the cork and this will also prevent any possible tearing of the cork, this characteristic is very important in particular when a fragile or old cork is to be extracted. As a reference, figure shows two kind of corkscrews: the one at the bottom has a chromium-plated spiral, whereas the one at the top has its spiral covered with Teflon.


 

 Another important element of the corkscrew is the lever which is usually of two kind: single lever and double lever. Figure shows both lever types: corkscrew at the bottom has a single lever, whereas the one at the top has a double lever. Both corkscrews do their job excellently, however the double lever corkscrew greatly diminish the strength needed to pull a cork out, thanks to its double positions that can be used during the phases of the operation. By using this particular kind of lever, the operation will start by placing the upper notch of the lever on the opening of the bottle and, as soon as the cork has been pulled out for about the half of its length, the lower notch will be placed on the opening and this will allow the completion of the process of pulling the cork out.

 Using a waiter's corkscrew is not difficult. The first operation to be accomplished is to cut the foil from the neck of the bottle. Foil will always be cut under the lower edge of the ring found near the opening of the bottle, anyway, it will never be cut on the upper edge. The reason why this operation must be done this way is mainly a matter of hygienics. Old bottles kept for a very long time in cellar, could have some mold developed between the foil and the neck as well as on the outside of the cork. This possible mold must be wiped out and cleaned by using a napkin: by cutting the foil under the edge of the rim allows to uncover a larger part of the neck, therefore it will allow to clean the neck better. As the foil has been cut, place the spiral's point on the cork, slightly off the center, and then it will be pushed in order to have the point of the spiral to enter a little into the cork. The next operation is about screwing the corkscrew in order to have the spiral screwed into the cork. Particular attention should be paid to the position of the corkscrew; it must always be kept perpendicularly and vertical and make sure the spiral does not go beyond the inner side of the cork. Before starting the operation of screwing the spiral, it is a good idea to realize the type and length of the cork in order to have an idea on how much the spiral should be screwed without having the wine spoiled with cork's debris. After having screwed the spiral into the cork, place the lever on the opening of the bottle and start pulling until the cork is completely extracted.

 Another tool that may be useful when opening a bottle of wine, in this case a special kind of wine, is the sparkling wine pliers. (shown on the left side of figure ) Pulling a cork out from a bottle of sparkling wine is not that difficult, however it may happen that cork, because of the effects of time, is firmly stuck to the neck of the bottle and removing or twisting such corks may be particularly hard. In this case sparkling wine pliers may be very useful. As can be seen, this pliers has two toothed jaws and can be used to have a more solid and effective grip on the cork, the handles of the pliers will allow twisting movements and the cork will unblock from its position. Pliers are exclusively used to unblock a cork, final extraction of the cork will be accomplished manually, as explained later. Sparkling wine pliers also has cutting nippers at the tip and they will be particularly useful to remove the wire cage in case, during its removal, it gets broken and there is no way to proceed with the usual manual operation. In case sparkling wine pliers are not available, the job can be accomplished by using a nutcracker.

 This short and essential discussion about accessories useful to open a bottle of wine is completed by remembering the reader to get a white napkin, or simply a paper napkin, which will be useful to accomplish all the cleaning operations needed during the opening of the bottle as well as during the service.

 

Opening the Bottle

 After having arranged all the needed tools and after having chilled or warmed a bottle to its serving temperature, the moment of opening the bottle has finally come. Before illustrating in detail the many procedures to be accomplished to open a bottle, in our case either still wines or sparkling wines as well as lightly sparkling wines, we will discuss about some aspects and drawbacks that may happen and some precautions to be taken in particular cases.

 The most feared drawback that may happen when a bottle of wine is being opened is concerning the so called “smell of cork”, or simply “corky wine” or “corkiness”, a fault that, to be honest, happens quite rarely, but it may happen anyway and therefore it should be properly recognized in order not to serve a faulty wine. Describing a smell with words is not easy at all, particularly, the description of unknown smells for which it is not even possible to make use of analogy with others, is certainly hard. Corky smell, disgusting and easily recognizable, becomes unmistakably detectable as soon as it is perceived for the first time. As an example, an approximate example, corky smell can be associated to the degradation of the smell of a cork in good conditions, a smell very similar to a mixture of mold, wet newspaper, wet cardboard and putrefied organic substances. This disgusting odor is transferred to the wine contained in the bottle, of course, irremediably ruining both the taste and the bouquet. A corky wine is easily recognizable during the olfactory evaluation because this defective odor will be the only one perceived and will cover all the rest. This defect is recognized in mouth as a disgusting flavor, similar to its odor. The cause of this defect is not because of some producer's fault or negligence and it is not even a fault of the one who was in charge to store and keep the wine. Technically speaking, the corky smell is originated by a chemical compound, 2,4,6--Tricloroanisole, in short 246--TCA. There are many factors that may cause the development of this substance, most of the times is practically unpredictable for cork producers. Up to some years ago, cork producers used to bleach corks with a chlorine solution and they lately found out that this substance reacted with humidity, as well as with a fungus present in cork, which eventually developed the fearful 246-TCA which in turn originated corky smells. Although corks are not washed with chlorine anymore, what is certain is that corkiness may still happens in some bottles of wine. They will lately found out this substance is naturally present in corks, whereas in other cases it develops because of contamination for having being in contact with containers during storage. Recent figures state that the fault of “smell of cork” affects about 2÷5% of total production of bottles of wine. In order to make things clear and complete, a corky wine is not prejudicial to health, the only drawback of corky wine is the disgusting smell and taste, a condition that, of course, is absolutely disliked by anyone who appreciates wine.


Deposit of tartrates on a cork
Deposit of tartrates on a cork

 Another drawback that could happen after having opened a bottle of wine can be found in corks, although with a relatively low frequency, is a deposit of tartrates that could be formed in the cork's side which is in contact with wine, this special and pretty uncommon condition is shown in figure ; these crystals can also be found in the bottom of the bottle as well. First of all the good news: tartrates are never to be considered as a defect and they are not cause of any defect to the wine. Tartrates crystals are absolutely harmless and they can be, if we really want to consider them as source of defects, unpleasing when observing the wine while it is in the bottle as well as when observing the cork. Technically speaking, tartrates are a byproduct of tartaric acid, the most important acid of wine, and the exact name is tartaric acid's salt of potassium, or simply tartrates. The formation of these crystals can also be caused as a consequence of a prolonged stay of the bottles, usually several months, in particularly cold environments, such as a refrigerator. Tartrates are more common in white wines instead of red wines and, once again, they are not to be considered as defect and they do not damage the wine in any way.

 An important precaution that must be taken when a bottle of wine is being opened, is to make sure the foil is cut under the rim which is near the opening. This practice, which can be seen ad banal as well as maniacal, is mainly determined by hygienic reasons and allows a better and thoroughly cleaning of the neck and of the opening from which the wine will be poured. In case this part of the neck would be dirty, in this part mold is usually found, these dirty components would be transferred into the glass and could alter the organoleptic qualities of the wine. Development of mold between the foil and the neck can frequently happen in old bottles which have been stored in cellar for a long time, whereas it is almost impossible to find in bottles containing young wine. Another good reason which justifies the cut of the foil under the rim, is the possibility of detecting some wine spilled out from the bottle because of some temperature change happened during storage. This spilled wine, trapped between the foil and the neck, turns into vinegar and then get oxidized and therefore it is source of bad smells and disgusting tastes. When this happens it is absolutely good to thoroughly clean the neck of the bottle with a napkin in order to prevent this oxidized wine to be transferred into the glass.

 The custom of opening a bottle of wines, especially red wines, with some hours in advance, a custom which is often considered as a “golden rule” for wine lovers is, if we logically consider the effect of this practice, useless. Bottles are usually opened with some time in advance in order to aerate the wine or, as often said in wine parlance, “to allow a wine breathing”; let's consider the condition of a wine when the bottle is full. The only part of the wine in contact with air, and therefore oxygen, is the one which is in the neck, a very narrow surface if compared to the total volume of the bottle: in order to obtain an effective and appreciable effect, the bottle should be opened with several hours in advance. In this regard, it is more convenient and appreciable the effect of the oxygenation a wine can have while it is poured into the glass: a lesser quantity of wine and a wider surface exposed to the air, a condition that cannot be found in any bottle. Also consider the useful effects of swirling the glass which actually oxygenates a wine; this cannot compare to the amount of oxygen the wine can get while it stays in an opened bottle. Some support the idea that the oxygenation of wine in the bottle is indeed a slow process which does not cause any shock to the wine, in particular very old wines, and according to this point of view, the idea could also be agreeable. Therefore, what can be said about decanting a wine, that is the procedure of pouring a wine from a bottle to a decanter which is usually accomplished for particularly old wines? This operation, even when it is accomplished in the best and correct way possible, that is by slowly pouring the wine, will completely and rapidly oxygenate the whole content of the bottle and, as soon as the wine is completely poured in the decanter, the surface of wine in contact with air is very wide compared to the surface of the neck of the bottle: the quantity of oxygen a wine can get when it is in a decanter is obviously high.

 Before illustrating the procedures for opening a bottle of wine, it is good to remember that before serving the wine to the guests, it must be rapidly checked. Just pour a small quantity of wine in a glass, preferably an ISO tasting glass, and by rapidly evaluating all its aspects, make sure the wine has no defects; this will surely avoid bad surprises as well as disappointments for you and your guests.

 

Still Wines and Lightly Sparkling Wines

 The opening of a bottle of still wine, as well as the opening of bottles having the cork completely submerged in the neck, starts by cutting the foil, when present. This operation will be accomplished by using the blade of the corkscrew. Foil must always be cut under the rim of the neck. The exact point where the foil is to be cut is shown in figure . After having cut the foil, with a napkin thoroughly clean the opening of the bottle and the rim; in this part of the bottle may have developed molds and could ruin the first wine poured in a glass. Moreover make sure there is no trace of oxidized wine spilled out from the bottle during the long stay in cellar and because of change of temperature, in this case, it must be completely wiped out with a napkin.

 Extract the spiral of the corkscrew and place its point on the cork, slightly off center, and push it down in order to allow it to enter the surface of the cork. Keep the corkscrew perpendicular and in vertical position and start screwing the spiral into the cork; pay attention to the quantity of spiral screwed into the cork and make sure it does not go beyond it as cork's debris could fall into the wine. In order to prevent this, check the length of the cork before screwing the spiral into it and screw it according to this. after this has been done, place the lever on the rim of the opening of the bottle and grip the handle of the corkscrew while pushing the lever with other hand's thumb in order to prevent the lever to slip down during the pulling movement achieved for extracting the cork. (See figure .A)


Opening of a bottle with submerged
cork
Opening of a bottle with submerged cork

 Start pulling the handle of the corkscrew until the cork has been almost extracted from the neck as illustrated in figure .B. At this point, the extraction of the cork will be completed by hand: using a napkin grasp the extracted part of the cork and it will be removed by twisting the cork or with moving it side by side, the cork will never be pulled up. This operation prevents the not very elegant “bang” and, therefore, the “piston effect” that could damage the wine which is in the upper side of the bottle. The “bang”, which frequently happens while opening bottles of sparkling wines, is to be avoided because it is cause of this “piston effect” and part of volatile substances in a wine would be sucked up to the neck and they would get concentrated in the upper side of the bottle, therefore in the wine which is in the neck. This can be source of a false “smell of cork” as well as other bad odors in the wine that would be poured in the first glass. In case the cork of a slightly sparkling wine is to be extracted, the procedure will be accomplished with higher care and attention because the bottle has a higher internal pressure and this could suddenly pop the cork out and would cause the piston effect we already discussed about.

 As soon as the cork has been removed, while holding it with a napkin, it must be checked and make sure its condition is good, in particular, it will be checked in order to detect the so called “smell of cork”. Cork must be held with a napkin in order to prevent the perception of any possible odor coming from the hand. The cork must be completely checked and must be examined in order to check for its good condition as well as the absence of any rotten substance. After this preliminary examination, the cork is being smelt on its side and for all its length, therefore it will be smelt the part of the cork that was in contact with wine. A cork in good conditions must always have odors which resemble the one of the wine contained in the bottle, any other odor may be sign of possible defects. In case the cork is found to be good and with no defect, the neck of the bottle and its opening will be cleaned again with a napkin, make sure to eliminate any possible cork's debris. Now it is the time to check the wine and to make sure it is drinkable, therefore it will be poured into glasses.

 

Sparkling Wines

 Before opening a bottle of sparkling wine, in case it was chilled by submerging it in a bucket filled with water and ice, it will be wiped with a napkin. The procedure of opening a bottle of sparkling wine starts by removing its foil. This can be done by using the blade of the corkscrew and the foil will be cut under the rim of the neck, just under the wire cage, and then it will be removed by hand. (See figure .A) After this, hold the neck of the bottle with the hand while keeping the thumb on the cork in order to prevent the cork to be suddenly expelled out because of the high pressure in the bottle. Using the other hand start removing the wire cage, as illustrated in figure .A. In case the wire cage should break during this operation, you can use sparkling wine pliers (see figure ) and by using its cutting nippers, cut the wire in order to allow cage removal.


Opening of a bottle of sparkling
wine
Opening of a bottle of sparkling wine

 After having removed the wire cage, the bottle will be held as shown in figure .B and the operation of the extraction of cork will start. Firmly hold the cork with a hand, whereas the other hand will start rotating the base of the bottle in order to loose the cork and to start its extraction. (see figure .B) During this operation particular attention must be paid in order to oppose to internal pressure's force that would suddenly expel the cork and could cause the “bang”, this must be avoided. Because of the internal high pressure found in bottles of sparkling wines, the piston effect, which we discussed already, is more accentuated and its effect would suck up a even higher quantity of volatile substances. At every rotation of the bottle the cork will be extracted more and more and after a while it will be completely extracted. When the cork is almost extracted, internal pressure will start to come out from the bottle and a hiss will be heard: when this happens, stop any rotating movement and wait for the internal pressure to completely get out from the bottle while keeping the hand on the cork in order to oppose to internal pressure. The pressure must be released from the bottle slowly and gently. (figure .C) At the end of this phase the cork will have completely come out from the neck and it will be in the hand's palm. It is essential to keep the bottle oblique during the entire operation in order to prevent any possible spillage of wine because of the internal pressure. However this may happen in case the bottle is being opened when it is kept in vertical position or when its temperature is too warm or in case the bottle was energetically shaken.

 After this operation is done, the cork will be examined in order to make sure it is in good conditions and it will also be smelt in order to detect any possible “smell of cork”. The neck of the bottle will be wiped and cleaned with a napkin as well as the opening. After having rapidly evaluated the sparkling wine in order to make sure it has no defect, the wine can be poured into glasses.

 

Decanting

 Decanting is that enchanting operation having two specific purposes: the first one is to separate wine from any possible deposit in the bottle in consequence of a very long time of aging, the second one is to promote the aeration of a wine. Decanting is always needed in case the wine is to be separated from its possible deposit, it is optional when the wine has to be simply aerated. Decanting is also useful in case a wine, including young wines, has some light smell defects, such as an excessive quantity of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Such defects can easily disappear with a proper aeration, therefore decanting such wines may be useful.

 The practice of decanting is less and less used in case a wine has to be simply aerated, as the huge variety of glasses available on the market allow a good aeration of the wine with the same efficiency. Decanting is also a subject that may be cause of arguments among wine lovers. For some it is absolutely needed for any aged wine, others avoid decanting any wine because the believe this operation can destroy all the complex aromas developed during the aging process. The sure thing is that decanting may destroy very old wines because they would not tolerate such a sudden oxygenation. However, a wine must not be decanted with many hours in advance: what may be seen as a simple aeration may turn into a disgraceful oxidation, something which is not liked in any wine. The best thing is to decant a wine soon before it is being served and decanting must be done only when it is really needed.

 The operation of decanting is accomplished by using a “decanter” and a candle. Before starting to decant a wine, it will be good to rinse the decanter with a small quantity of wine, the same wine to be decanted, and make sure the wine will completely rinse the inside of the decanter. At end of this operation, this wine will be poured off and discarded. With one hand hold the decanter while keeping it oblique, whereas the other hand will be used to hold the bottle while making sure bottle's neck is over the candle. Pay attention to the distance of the bottle from the candle in order to prevent the neck to heat up as this would damage the wine. Start pouring the wine into the decanter, it will be poured slowly, and make sure the wine goes along the decanter's side. As soon as turbid wines is seen through the bottle's neck, stop the operation in order not to pour the deposit into the decanted wine.

 

Keeping leftover wine

 It may happen that after having served a bottle of wine there is still some unfinished wine and in this case one may need to keep it and to save it in order not to ruin wine's flavor. The main factor that compromise the quality of wine is oxygen, for this reason any method used for saving leftover wine will aim to prevent or, at least, diminish the contact of wine with air in order to limit the effects of oxidation. The best way will aim to have the least possible airspace inside of a bottle in order to limit the contact of the surface of wine with air and therefore having a very low oxygen to wine ratio. The best way to save leftover wine is to transfer it to a smaller bottle: it will be completely filled and then sealed with a cap or a cork. This way will ensure a very small airspace and will prevent oxidation. For this purpose, it is good to save empty half bottles; they will be very useful and handy for saving leftover wine.

 Moreover, there are many commercial and alternative solutions that allow leftover wine to be kept and saved for some days before it gets ruined. The most famous one is surely the pump used to suck air from the bottle and this procedure can save a wine for not more than 2-3 days. The system is made of a pump and reusable rubber stoppers used to seal the bottle. The pump is placed on the stopper and then by pumping up and down, the air will be sucked from the bottle until most of the oxygen will be extracted. Another way is to make use of special canned harmless gas, usually made of nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) which can be sprayed inside of a bottle. The gas will blanket the surface of the wine and this will prevent any contact with the oxygen and therefore oxidation. No matter what method is being used to save leftover wine, it must be consumed within two or three days.

 Saving leftover sparkling wine is done by sealing the bottle with a special stopper, known as “sparkling wine stopper” expressly made for this purpose and they can be bought in any wine shop. These stoppers hermetically seal the bottle and prevent the oxygen to get in as well as the carbon dioxide to get out. The famous “trick” of leaving a teaspoon on the neck of the bottle has no effect on the sparkling wine and therefore is useless.

 




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  Corkscrew Issue 2, November 2002   
Serving a Bottle of WineServing a Bottle of Wine  Contents 
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